- Stock #587-4 (866 grams)
RG-Max is a powdered drink mix formulated with heart-healthy amino acids and powerful antioxidant nutrients that have been shown to enhance blood circulation, improve heart function, reduce blood clotting, lower cholesterol levels, and help prevent cardiovascular disease. RG-Max contains:
1-9is an amino acid involved in nitric oxide (NO) production. NO plays an important role in numerous functions within the body, many of which are directly related to cardiovascular health. For example, NO relaxes the arteries to maintain normal blood pressure, dilates coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart (which helps prevent angina pain), regulates vascular (blood vessel) tone, lowers serum cholesterol levels, prevents the oxidation of LDL cholesterol (which contributes to plaque buildup and the development of atherosclerosis), and enhances blood flow to the brain and extremities. L-arginine also appears to function as a natural blood thinner by decreasing platelet aggregation, thus helping to prevent heart attacks and strokes. In addition to its cardiovascular benefits, l-arginine plays a central role in immune system function and wound-healing.
Research suggests that l-arginine supplementation may offer potential for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases such as angina, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and intermittent claudication (also referred to as peripheral artery disease), as well as related conditions, including erectile dysfunction and preeclampsia.1-3,5,6,10-24
L-arginine is typically well-tolerated with only minor gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea occasionally reported. Significant adverse effects have not been noted with l-arginine supplementation, although individuals with renal (kidney) failure or hepatic (liver) disease should be carefully monitored since they may not adequately metabolize and excrete supplemental arginine. In addition, results from one study suggest that supplemental l-arginine should not be taken following acute myocardial infarction (heart attack); however, other studies have demonstrated conflicting results.1-4,24-28
2,29-36is a rich source of polyphenols—antioxidant substances that protect the body’s tissues against oxidative stress (free radical damage). One such polyphenol, resveratrol, is a powerful antioxidant that helps reduce capillary permeability to prevent easy bruising and may also increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to protect against heart disease. In addition, resveratrol has been shown to protect against LDL oxidation in vitro—oxidation of cholesterol in arteries can lead to atherosclerosis. Resveratrol also participates in cholesterol metabolism and thus, may help prevent the formation and build-up of plaque deposits in the arteries. Furthermore, researchers have found that resveratrol inhibits platelet aggregation and the formation of blood clots, which can lead to heart attack and stroke.
1,2,37-42is a sulphur-containing amino acid that is widely used in Japan to treat heart disease. Results from animal and human studies suggest that taurine may be an essential nutrient to protect against oxidative stress (free radical damage), neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis. In fact, taurine deficiency is an established primary cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (a form of heart disease) and may contribute to elevated blood pressure in people with hypertension. Taurine, which helps regulate heartbeat and promotes the pumping action of the heart, is also a common deficiency in individuals with congestive heart failure.
l-citrulline, l-methionine, l-tyrosine, l-threonine, l-cysteine, l-glutamine, and the branched-chain amino acids l-isoleucine and l-leucine) – Amino acids are the chemical “building blocks“ that make up proteins and other tissue constituents, including muscle tissue. In addition, research indicates that amino acids can enhance certain physiological functions such as brain function (through neurotransmitter stimulation), immune response, and free radical-scavenging activity. Amino acids are also used to combat heart disease and other circulatory problems. For example, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) appear to stimulate protein synthesis in heart muscle tissue and may function as an important alternative energy source for patients with heart disease. Furthermore, the amino acid l-citrulline has been shown to efficiently increase plasma levels of l-arginine.4,43-50(
51-56(NAC) is a specially modified form of the amino acid cysteine that functions as a powerful antioxidant and immune stimulant. Animal and human studies suggest that NAC is also a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of heart disease. For example, NAC has been shown to lower homocysteine levels—elevated homocysteine levels are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In addition, a recent study found that NAC provides anticoagulant or “blood-thinning” properties. Furthermore, NAC may provide protective effects against age-related atherogenesis (the development of fatty plaque deposits in the walls of arteries).
2,11,28,57-60– L-carnitine is an amino acid needed for efficient fatty acid metabolism, which results in cellular energy production. L-carnitine transports fatty acids into the mitochondria where they are converted to energy. Since fatty acids are the primary fuel for energy production in the heart muscle, normal heart function depends on sufficient levels of l-carnitine. Scientific evidence supports an overall beneficial effect of l-carnitine supplementation in reducing heart disease risk factors such as elevated lipid levels and blood pressure, improving physiological function, and impacting clinical outcomes in coronary conditions such as angina, cardiomyopathy, and congestive heart failure. In fact, based on results from human clinical studies, l-carnitine is considered a “conditionally-essential nutrient” of foremost importance in cardiovascular disease therapy. Furthermore, animal research suggests that acetyl-l-carnitine, a derivative of l-carnitine, may be superior to l-carnitine, due to its ability to increase carnitine levels in the blood and brain, as well as decrease oxidative damage in the brain.
1Bratman MD, S. & Kroll PhD, D. Natural Health Bible. Prima Publishing, 1999.
2Lininger DC, S., et al. The Natural Pharmacy, 2nd ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima Health, 1999.
3Fried PhD, R. Merrel MD, W. The Arginine Solution. NY, NY: Warner Books, 1999.
4Chaitow DO, L. Thorsons Guide To Amino Acids. London: Thorsons, 1991.
5Podell MD, R. “L-Arginine’s Vital Heart Health Connection.” Nutrition Science News; November 1998.
6Wu, G. & Meininger, C. “Arginine Nutrition & Cardiovascular Function.” Journal of Nutrition; 2000, 130:2626-2629.
7Wolf, A., et. al. “Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology; 1997, 29(3):479-485.
8Tong, B.C., Barbul, A. “Cellular and physiological effects of arginine.” Mini Reviews in Medical Chemistry; 2004, 4(8):823-32.
9Rodriguez, P.C., et. al. “L-arginine consumption by macrophages modulates the expression of CD3 zeta chain in T lymphocytes.” Journal of Immunology; 2003, 171(3):1232-1239.
10Cheng, J.W., Balwin, S.N. “L-arginine in the management of cardiovascular diseases.“ The Annals of Pharmacotherapy; 2001, 35(6):755-764.
11Kendler, B.S. “Supplemental conditionally essential nutrients in cardiovascular disease therapy.” Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing; 2006, 21(1):9-16.
12Chagan, L., et. al. “Use of alternative pharmacotherapy in management of cardiovascular diseases.” The American Journal of Managed Care; 2002, 8(3):270-285
13Fugh-Berman, A. “Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.” Preventive Cardiology; 2000, 3(1):24-32.
14Fisman, E.Z., et. al. “The nitric oxide pathway: is L-arginine a gate to the new millennium medicine? A meta-analysis of L-arginine effects.” Journal of Medicine; 1999, 30(3-4):131-148.
15Yang, E.H., et. al. “Current and future treatment strategies for refractory angina.” Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 2004, 79(10):1284-1292.
16Doutreleau, S., et. al. “Chronic L-arginine supplementation enhances endurance exercise tolerance in heart failure patients.” International Journal of Sports Medicine; 2006, 27(7):567-572.
17Facchinetti, F., et. al. “L-arginine supplementation in patients with gestational hypertension: a pilot study.” Hypertension in Pregnancy; 2007, 26(1):121-130.
18Siasos, G., et. al. “L-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis: an alternative treatment for premature atherosclerosis” International Journal of Cardiology; 2007, 116(3):300-308.
19Gokce, N. “L-arginine and hypertension.” Journal of Nutrition; 2004, 134(10 Suppl):2807S-2811S.
20Oka, R.K., et. al. “A pilot study of L-arginine supplementation on functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease.” Vascular Medicine; 2005, 10(4):265-274.
21McKay, D. “Nutrients and botanicals for erectile dysfunction: examining the evidence.” Alternative Medicine Review; 2004, 9(1):4-16.
22Rytlewski, K., et. al. “Effects of oral L-arginine on the foetal condition and neonatal outcome in preeclampsia: a preliminary report.” Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology; 2006, 99(2):146-152.
23—. “Effects of prolonged oral supplementation with l-arginine on blood pressure and nitric oxide synthesis in preeclampsia.” European Journal of Clinical Investigation; 2005, 35(1):32-37.
24Schwedhelm, E., et. al. “Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 2008, 65(1):51-59
25“L-Arginine.” Alternative Medicine Review; 2005, 10(2):139-147.
26Grimble, G.K. “Adverse gastrointestinal effects of arginine and related amino acids.” Journal of Nutrition; 2007, 137(6 Suppl 2):1693S-1701S.
27Schulman, S.P., et. al. “L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial.” The Journal of the American Medical Association; 2006, 295(1):58-64.
28Willmot, M., et. al. “A systematic review of nitric oxide donors and L-arginine in experimental stroke; effects on infarct size and cerebral blood flow.” Nitric Oxide; 2005, 12(3):141-149.
29Mindell PhD, E. Earl Mindell’s Supplement Bible. NY, NY: Fireside Books, 1998.
30Mankewits, M. “Fruit of the Vine.” Energy Times; 1999, 9(3):31-34.
31Tapiero, H., et. al. “Polyphenols: do they play a role in the prevention of human pathologies?“ Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy; 2002, 56(4):200-207.
32Fremont, L. “Biological effects of resveratrol.“ Life Sciences; 2000, 66(8):663-673.
33Bhat, K.P.L., et. al. “Biological effects of resveratrol.“ Antioxidants & Redox Signaling; 2001, 3(6):1041-1064.
34Zou, J., et. al. “Effects of resveratrol on oxidative modification of human low density lipoprotein.” Chinese Medical Journal; 2000, 113(2):99-102.
35Wang, Z., et. al. “Effect of resveratrol on platelet aggregation in vivo and in vitro.” Chinese Medical Journal; 2002, 115(3):378-380.
36Stef, G., et. al. “Resveratrol inhibits aggregation of platelets from high-risk cardiac patients with aspirin resistance.“ Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology; 2006, 48(2):1-5.
37Bouckenooghe, T., et. al. “Is taurine a functional nutrient?” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care; 2006, 9(6):728-733.
38Allard, M.L., et. al. “The management of conditioned nutritional requirements in heart failure.” Heart Failure Reviews; 2006, 11(1):75-82.
39Militante, J.D., Lombardini, J.B. “Treatment of hypertension with oral taurine: experimental and clinical studies.” Amino Acids; 2002, 23(4):381-393.
40Harada, H., et. al. “Oral taurine supplementation prevents fructose-induced hypertension in rats.” Heart and Vessels; 2004, 19(3):132-136.
41Gupta, R.C., et. al. “Taurine analogues; a new class of therapeutics: retrospect and prospects.” Current Medical Chemistry; 2005;12(17):2021-2039.
42Jeejeebhoy, F., et. al. “Nutritional supplementation with MyoVive repletes essential cardiac myocyte nutrients and reduces left ventricular size in patients with left ventricular dysfunction.” American Heart Journal; 2002, 143(6):1092-1100.
43Spehar, J. “Amino Acids.“ Gale Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine; 2001. . Accessed December 2007.
44Bourre, J.M. “Effects of nutrients (in food) on the structure and function of the nervous system: update on dietary requirements for brain. Part 2: Macronutrients.” The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging; 2006, 10(5):386-399.
45Calder, P.C. “Branched-chain amino acids and immunity.” The Journal of Nutrition; 2006, 136(1 Suppl):288S-293S.
46Chistiakov, V.A., et. al. [The superoxide-scavenging activity of some amino acids in water solutions] Biofizika; 2005, 50(4):601-605.
47Hunter, B.T. “Amino acids & health.” Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients; April 2004.
48Szpetnar, M., et. al. “Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in heart diseases (ischaemic heart disease and myocardial infarction).” Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio D: Medicina; 2004;59(2):91-95.
49McNulty, P.H., et. al. “Effect of hyperinsulinemia on myocardial amino acid uptake in patients with coronary artery disease.” Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental; 2000, 49(10):1365-1369.
50Young, L.H., et. al. “Myocardial protein turnover in patients with coronary artery disease. Effect of branched chain amino acid infusion.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation; 1991 Feb;87(2):554-560.
51“N-acetylcysteine.“ Alternative Medicine Review; 2000, 5(5):467-471.
52Kelly, G.S. “Clinical Applications of N-Acetylcysteine.“ Alternative Medicine Review; 1998, 3(2):114-127.
53Roes, E.M., et. al. “Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine and whole blood glutathione levels in healthy, non-pregnant women.“ Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine; 2002, 40(5):496-498.
54Wiklund, O., et. al. “N-acetylcysteine treatment lowers plasma homocysteine but not serum lipoprotein(a) levels.“ Atherosclerosis; 1996, 5;119(1):99-106.
55Niemi, T.T., et. al. “The effect of N-acetylcysteine on blood coagulation and platelet function in patients undergoing open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.” Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis; 2006, 17(1):29-34.
56Miquel, J. “Nutrition and ageing.” Public Health Nutrition; 2001, 4(6A):1385-1388.
57Pizzorno, J. & Murray, M. A Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1999.
58Kelly, G.S. “Insulin resistance: lifestyle and nutritional interventions.” Alternative Medicine Review; 2000, 5(2):109-132.
59—. “L-Carnitine: therapeutic applications of a conditionally-essential amino acid.” Alternative Medicine Review; 1998, 3(5):345-360.
60Liu, J., et. al. “Comparison of the effects of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine on carnitine levels, ambulatory activity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in the brain of old rats.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences; 2004, 1033:117-131.