- Stock #1796-4 (60 capsules)
Coenzyme Q10, a naturally occurring nutrient found in nearly every cell in the human body, operates as a coenzyme in energy production (ATP synthesis) at the cellular level. As a result, CoQ10 affects the functions of all cells in the body and thus, is essential for the health of virtually all human tissues and organs, particularly the heart, immune system, gastric mucosa (stomach lining) and gingiva (gums). CoQ10 also functions as a fat-soluble antioxidant, inhibiting the oxidation of fats in cell membranes and serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL). As an antioxidant, CoQ10 protects proteins and mitochondrial DNA from free radical damage, neutralizing free radicals that promote tumor growth and metastases. In addition, CoQ10 plays an important role in guarding the body against general free radical stress. In fact, CoQ10 can actually regenerate oxidized vitamin E, in essence, recycling vitamin E and sustaining its antioxidative effects.1-12
CoQ10 deficiency can result from low dietary intake of CoQ10, chronic malnutrition, chronic disease, or simply an insufficient intake of essential nutrients required for CoQ10 synthesis. A clinical study of hospitalized patients receiving only intravenous nutrition without vitamin support showed that CoQ10 blood levels dropped by 50% in just one week. Another factor that can adversely affect CoQ10 levels is the administration of cholesterol-reducing drugs such as gemfibrozil and HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (i.e. statin-like drugs), as well as certain beta-blockers, adriamycin (an anti-cancer drug) and psychotropic drugs, including phenothiazine and tricyclic antidepressants. In addition, reduced levels of CoQ10 have been associated with the aging process. However, it should be noted that even health-conscious individuals may be at risk for CoQ10 deficiency—low blood levels of CoQ10 have been exhibited in athletes, most likely due to the increased metabolic demands of muscles involved in consistent high-intensity exercise, which in turn results in increased free radical reactions.1,2,8,9,12,13
Insufficient serum blood levels and tissue deficiencies of CoQ10 have been demonstrated in a wide variety of cardiovascular diseases, including angina pectoris (chest pain), aortic valvular disease (a heart condition involving a defect in one or more heart valves), cardiomyopathy, congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension (high blood pressure), mitral valve prolapse (a common heart valve abnormality), in individuals following coronary artery bypass surgery, and in women with preeclampsia (a pregnancy-related condition that causes high blood pressure). In addition, research has consistently confirmed a strong correlation between the severity of heart failure and low blood and tissue levels of CoQ10. This should come as no surprise, since the heart requires the highest amount of ATP activity in order to support its constant aerobic function (pulsation). Thus, sufficient levels of CoQ10 are essential for a healthy heart and critical for a failing heart.1,2,4,8,10,14-16
Research shows that when CoQ10 levels drop by 25%, organs may become deficient and impaired; however, when levels decline by 75%, critical tissue damage and even death may occur. According to one study, researchers found those individuals demonstrating the lowest tissue levels of CoQ10 to be the sickest and most compromised, many of whom were diagnosed as class IV cardiac patients—those exhibiting symptoms of extreme fatigue, chest discomfort and shortness of breath, even while resting, as classified according to the guidelines of the New York Heart Association. Fortunately, myocardial (heart muscle) tissue levels of CoQ10 can be significantly restored through oral supplementation, as the heart muscle is the most responsive of body tissues to CoQ10 therapy.1,14
Several double-blind, placebo-controlled trials involving over 1,000 heart patients have confirmed positive and statistically significant clinical results with CoQ10 supplementation. For example, CoQ10 has been shown to be clinically effective for coronary artery disease, arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), hypertension, and particularly congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Congestive heart failure is a cardiac condition in which the heart muscle is too weak to effectively pump blood to various areas throughout the body, resulting in patients experiencing such symptoms as fatigue, shortness of breath, fluid buildup in the lower legs, and congestion in the lungs. Cardiomyopathy is a condition where the heart tissue has become damaged, diseased, enlarged (hypertrophied) or stretched out and thinned (dilated), resulting in weakened muscle fibers—a condition most often due to scarring from heart attacks or from chronic high blood pressure, viral infections causing severe heart inflammation, or even long-term excess alcohol consumption.1,8,10,13,14,17
Italian researchers conducted a 3-month study involving 2,664 patients with congestive heart failure (classes II and III). Daily dosages of CoQ10 ranged from 50-150mg, with the majority of patients receiving 100mg. Results showed a low incidence of side effects with improvement in clinical signs and symptoms of edema, pulmonary rates, palpitations, sweating, subjective arrhythmia, insomnia and vertigo in over 62% of patients. An overall improvement of at least 3 symptoms, interpreted as an index of improved quality of life, was observed in 54% of patients. In a 6-year clinical study involving 143 patients with chronic, stable cardiomyopathy (98% as classes III or IV), patients were given 100mg of CoQ10 daily. Study results showed that 84% of patients demonstrated statistically significant improvement and 85% improved by 1 or 2 classes. Researchers determined that CoQ10 is a safe and effective long-term therapy for chronic cardiomyopathy.15,18
The positive effects of CoQ10 supplementation are not limited to heart disease. Researchers have concluded that degenerative diseases and aging may actually be manifestations of a decreased capacity to maintain sufficient levels of CoQ10. Fortunately, age-related decline of CoQ10 levels and the resulting oxidative stress-induced apoptosis (cell death), bioenergy decline, and development of neurodegenerative diseases may prove to be preventable. In fact, recent clinical trials suggest that supplemental CoQ10 can slow the functional decline in certain neurodegenerative disorders, particularly Parkinson’s disease. A recent double-blind, placebo-controlled trial found that supplemental CoQ10 provided a moderate beneficial effect in Parkinson’s disease patients.1,12,19,20
A correlation between CoQ10 and healthy immune system functioning has also been established—cells and tissues that are essential for healthy immune function are dependent on high cellular ATP production, and thus, adequate CoQ10 levels. Several studies have confirmed the immunomodulating effects of CoQ10. A study of 8 chronically ill patients receiving 60mg of CoQ10 daily for 27 to 98 days showed a significant increase in serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels. IgG antibodies are considered the most important antibodies for fighting bacterial and viral infections, and are the only type of antibody that can cross the placenta. Thus, researchers concluded that CoQ10 may inhibit the immunosuppression associated with chronic illness.1,10,11,21
Due to its role in enhancing immune function, CoQ10 is being investigated as a possible anti-cancer agent. Animal studies have shown that CoQ10 supplementation reduces tumor size and increases survival in mice exposed to chemical carcinogens. Studies have also confirmed a correlation between low blood levels of CoQ10 and cancer, including breast and cervical cancer. A clinical trial of 200 women hospitalized for the biopsy of a breast tumor was conducted to further determine the relation between levels of CoQ10 and breast cancer. A CoQ10 deficiency was observed in both cases of carcinomas (80) and non-malignant lesions (120). In fact, a correlation was confirmed between the extent of the CoQ10 deficiency and the severity of the breast disease—the lower the levels of CoQ10 the more serious the cancer. Furthermore, preliminary studies have shown complete regression of tumors in two cases of patients with breast cancer taking high doses (390mg per day) of CoQ10.1,3,21,22-27
Side effects of CoQ10 supplementation are very limited to rare, occurring in less than ½ of 1%, according to a study of long-term CoQ10 use in 5,000 patients. When mild reactions were experienced, they included appetite loss, diarrhea, slight nausea and stomach discomfort. Typically, such reactions will disappear if CoQ10 is taken after meals or if the dose is reduced.1
A few case-stories have claimed that CoQ10 and possibly also Ginkgo biloba interact with warfarin (Coumadin) treatment. In response, 21 out-patients on stable, long-term warfarin treatment were included in a randomized, double- blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. CoQ10 (100mg daily), Ginkgo biloba (100mg daily) and placebo were given in random order over the 4-week study, with each followed by a 2-week wash out period. Results showed that neither CoQ10 nor Ginkgo biloba influenced the clinical effect of warfarin.28
Each capsule of NSP’s CoQ10 Plus provides 10mg of coenzyme Q10, 6mg of iron, 75mg of magnesium, 15mg of zinc and 7.5mg of copper, in a base of capsicum fruit and hawthorn berries. In addition, the minerals in CoQ10 Plus are organically chelated to the amino acids leucine, histidine and glycine to improve absorption.1,12,29-31
32and – Studies in humans and animals have shown that optimal intakes of elements such as iron, magnesium, zinc and copper can reduce individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as disorders of blood lipids, blood pressure and coagulation.
33-39provides a number of beneficial effects for the cardiovascular system. Studies show that capsicum reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries) by decreasing serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Capsicum also reduces platelet aggregation (an independent risk factor for heart disease and stroke), which contributes to the formation of clots and can lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaque. Furthermore, capsicum contains the active constituent capsaicin, which has demonstrated both antiarrhythmic (preventing/alleviating irregular heartbeat) and antiischemic (preventing/alleviating decreased blood supply due to obstruction or constriction of blood vessels) efficacy in vitro.
33,34,40-44reduces blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels, improves blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart, enhances heart muscle contractions to improve cardiac efficiency, and offers significant protection against the development of atherosclerosis. Hawthorn may also provide a cardioprotective effect through its apparent ability to decrease the oxygen demands of heart tissue. In some instances, hawthorn can be used to complement drug therapy to improve the quality of life in individuals with stable angina and to slow the progression of early-stage congestive heart failure.
1Sinatra MD, S. The Coenzyme Q10 Phenomenon. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 1998.
2Mindell PhD, E. & Hopkins MA, V. Prescription Alternatives. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 1998.
3Folkers, K. “Relevance of the biosynthesis of coenzyme Q10 and of the four bases of DNA as a rationale for the molecular causes of cancer and a therapy.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication; 1996, 224(2):358-361.
4Albrecht MS, F. “Is Coenzyme Q10 Supplementation Not An Option, But Critical To Your Health?” Health & Nutrition Breakthroughs; February 1998.
5Weber, C., et. al. “Antioxidative effect of dietary coenzyme Q10 in human blood plasma.” International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research; 1994, 64(4):311-315.
6Stocker, R., et. al. “Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does alpha-tocopherol.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA; 1991, 88(5):1646-1650.
7Ghirlanda, G. “Evidence of plasma CoQ10-lowering effect by HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology; 1993, 33(3):226-229.
8Gaby MD, A.R. “The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine: Part II. Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Infertility.” Alternative Medicine Review; 1996, 1(3):168-175.
9Ernster, L. and Forsmark-Andree, P. “Ubiquinol: an endogenous antioxidant in aerobic organisms.” Clinical Investigations; 1993, 71(8 Supp):60-65.
10Folkers, K., et. al. “Research on coenzyme Q10 in clinical medicine and in immunomodulation.” Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research; 1985, 11(8):539-545.
11Ronzio, R. “Nutritional support for the immune system.” American Journal of Natural Medicine; 1998, 5(3):18-22.
12“Coenzyme Q10.” Alternative Medicine Review; 1998, 3(1):58-61.
13Sarter, B. “Coenzyme Q10 and cardiovascular disease: a review.” The Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing; 2002, 16(4):9-20.
14Folkers, K., et. al. “Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA; 1985, 82(3): 901-904.
15Baggio, E., et. al. “Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine; 1994, 15 Supp:287-294.
16Teran E, et.al. “Preeclampsia is associated with a decrease in plasma coenzyme Q10 levels.” Free Radical Biology & Medicine; 2003, 35(11):1453-1456.
17Mortensen, S.A. “Overview on coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in chronic heart failure. Rationale, design and end-points of “Q-symbio”—a multinational trial.” Biofactors; 2003, 18(1-4):79-89.
18Langsjoen, P.H., et. al. “A six-year clinical study of therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q10.” International Journal of Tissue Reactions; 1990, 12(3):169-171.
19Shults, C.W. “Coenzyme Q10 in neurodegenerative diseases.” Current Medicinal Chemistry; 2003, 10(19):1917-1921.
20Muller, T., et. al. “Coenzyme Q10 supplementation provides mild symptomatic benefit in patients with Parkinson’s disease.” Neuroscience Letters; 2003, 341(3):201-204.
21Gaby MD, A.R. “The Role of Coenzyme Q10 in Clinical Medicine: Part I.” Alternative Medicine Review; 1996, 1(1):11-17.
22Folkers, K., et. al. “Activities of vitamin Q10 in animal models and a serious deficiency in patients with cancer.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication; 1997, 234(2): 296-299.
23Almada, A. “The Co-Q10 – Cancer Connection.” Nutrition Science News; July 2001.
24Portakal, O., et. al. “Coenzyme Q10 concentrations and antioxidant status in tissues of breast cancer patients.” Clinical Biochemistry; 2000, 33(4):279-284.
25Sahelian MD, R. “CoQ10 and breast cancer.” Nature’s Impact; 1999, February-March, 1999.
26Jolliet, P., et. al. “Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations in breast cancer: prognosis and therapeutic consequences.” Internat’l Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics; 1998, 36(9):506-509.
27Lockwood, K., et. al. “Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases.” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communication; 1995, 212(1):172-177.
28Engelsen, J., et. al. [Effect of Coenzyme Q10 and Ginkgo biloba on warfarin dosage in patients on long-term warfarin treatment. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over trial]. Ugeskrift for Laeger; 2003, 165(18):1868-1871.
29Borek PhD, C. “Co-Q10 Energizes the Heart and Brain.” Nutrition Science News; July 1999.
30Zaghloul, A.A., et. al. “Bioavailability assessment of oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in dogs.” Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy; 2002, 28(10):1195-1200.
31Weis, M., et. al. “Bioavailability of four oral coenzyme Q10 formulations in healthy volunteers.” Molecular Aspects of Medicine; 1994, 15 Suppl:s273-80.
32Mertz W. “Trace minerals and atherosclerosis.” Fed Proc. 1982 Sep;41(11):2807-12.
33Mills, S. & Bone, K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
34Pizzorno, J & Murray, M (eds). A Textbook of Natural Medicine, 2nd ed. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1999.
35Kawada T., et. al. “Effects of capsaicin on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet.” Journal of Nutrition; 1986, 116(7):1272-1278.
36Wang, J.P., et. al. “Antiplatelet effect of capsaicin.” Thrombosis Research; 1984, 36(6): 497-507.
37Visudhiphan S., et. al. “The relationship between high fibrinolytic activity and daily capsicum ingestion in Thais.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; 1982, 35(6): 1452-1458.
38Murray ND, M. & Pizzorno ND, J. Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, 2nd Ed. Rocklin, CA: Prima, 1998.
39D\’Alonzo A.J., et. al. “In vitro effects of capsaicin: antiarrhythmic and antiischemic activity.” European Journal of Pharmacology; 1995, 272(2-3): 269-278.
40Brown ND, D. “Protecting Your Heart with Hawthorn, CoQ10 and More.” Herbs For Health; 1998, 3(3): 24-28.
41Schussler, M., et. al. “Myocardial effects of flavonoids from Crataegus species.” Arzneimittelforschung; 1995, 45(8): 842-845.
42Excerpt from American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium, in “Hawthorn: Old Reliable for the Heart.” Nutrition Science News; August, 2000.
43Lininger DC, S., et al. The Natural Pharmacy. Rocklin, CA: Prima Health, 1998.
44Fetrow, C. & Avila, J. Professional’s Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.